Session State Protection in APEX

State Protection is a built-in functionality that prevents hackers from
tampering with the URLs within your application. URL tampering can adversely
affect program logic, session state contents, and information privacy.
Session State Protection is a two-step process. First, you enable the feature.
Second, you set page and item security attributes.

What is SSP?

SSP is used to prevent URL tampering. URL tampering is when a malicious user
modifies URL parameters to access data that they may not have access to. For
example if you have a Master Detail setup for the EMP table (i.e a report with
edit links to a form) each link will look something like this:
If you restricted the report
to employees in your current department you can easily change the EMPNO id and
change it to another employee in another department. Even though the intention
of the application was to “restrict” users to only edit people within their own
department a malicious or curious user could start editing all the employees.

SSP prevents URL tampering by applying a checksum to the end of the URL. The
new URL looks something like: I

f a user now tries to modify the EMPNO id they
will get an error in APEX as the URL won’t have the correct checksum.

Applying SSP

To add SSP at the page level (technically called Page Access Protection at the
page level) edit the page and scroll down to the Security section. Select
Arguments Must Have Checksum for the Page Access Protection option.

Once that is added
you can modify the page items you want SSP to be applied to. Edit a page item
and scroll down to the Security section. Select an option for Session State
Protection (note: click on the help link to find the differences between the
various options; I usually use Checksum Required – Session Level).

To modify a page and
all its page items at the same time go to Shared Components > Session State
Protection > Page Item and click on a page link.

Two Layered Approach: Page vs Page Items

The easiest way to think of SSP in APEX is that it’s a two layered approach.
First you must define which pages (not page items) require a checksum applied
to it when passing in URL parameters. The second part is to define which page
items require a checksum when set from the URL. You can’t do the later with out
the former (i.e. if you just define a set of page items to have SSP it won’t
work) but you can have pages with SSP without any page items with SSP.

The two layered approach is where most people get confused. If you apply SSP at
the page level, shouldn’t all items be protected? At first glance the answer is
“yes”. But the actual answer is no. The following example highlights why both
“layers” are required.

Suppose we only apply Page Access Protection for the EMP form page (let’s say
P11). If I clicked on a link to edit an employee it would add the checksum.
Initially it looks as if everything is ok. Now suppose we have another page,
P20, that doesn’t have Page Access Protection enabled. We could actually set
P11_EMPNO from P20. The URL would look like this:
Most people forget that you can set page items from any page,
i.e. you’re not restricted to only setting items for the current page that
you’re accessing.

You could also set any of the page items via an AJAX call (since none of them
have SSP applied to them). Either way, just applying page access protection
isn’t enough.

When Not to Apply SSP

If you haven’t implemented SSP in your application you should really look at
doing so. Before you apply it to all items it’s important to note that any
items that can be set via an AJAX call can not have SSP enabled for them. The
most usual case of this is cascading LOVs (select a department, then a list of
employees gets refreshed with all the employees that belong to the selected

The reason why you can’t have SSP item items that are set via AJAX is that AJAX
uses JavaScript to build the URL. Since JavaScript code is downloaded and runs
on the end user’s machine it is not deemed to be secure. So if you had your
checksum code in a JavaScript file a malicious user to easily reverse engineer
it and apply checksums for any item they wanted to.


SSP is a great feature to quickly help secure your application. It’s important
to remember that SSP only prevents URL tampering. Nothing more, nothing less.
It’s a common mistake by developers, and managers alike, that just applying SSP
means that they’ve locked down and secured an application. It’s just one of
many steps to help protect your application.

  • January 6, 2015 | 83 views